Ahsan Sofyan, Disman Disman, Kokom K, Erlina W


Abstract: The application of the Open-ended approach in the social
studies learning process can develop high-level thinking skills of
elementary school students. The formulation of the problem in this study
is how to develop, implement and influence and impact the application
of the Open-Ended learning model in social studies learning to improve
the high-level thinking skills of elementary school students. The method
used is the research and development (R & D) of Borg and Gall. The
research locations were ten elementary schools in five districts/cities in
North Kalimantan. The subjects of this study were high-class teachers
and students (grades 4.5, and 6) using purposive sampling techniques.
The results showed that the Open-Ended learning model was feasible to
use based on peer evaluations, expert lecturers, and effective teachers
could improve the high-level thinking skills of students in Elementary
School seen from the application of the Open-Ended learning model in
the learning process when the experiment class students were more
higher than control class students. In the final model validation test,
where the average experimental class post-test was 83.33 higher than
the control class, which obtained an average of 80.07.
Keywords: Open-Ended Approach; Social Studies Learning; High-Level
Thinking Ability

Full Text:



Adodo, S. O. (2013). Effect of mind-mapping as a self-regulated learning strategy on students’

achievement in basic science and technology. Mediteranean Journal of Social Science, 4 (6), hlm.


Badger, E., B. Thomas, (1992). “Open-ended questions in reading,” Practical Assessment, Res. and

Evaluation, Vol. 3, No. 4,

Becker, Shimada. (1997). The Open-Ended Approach. NCTM.

Bloom, B.S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York: Longman

Borg, W. R. & Gall, M. D. (2003). Educational Research: An Introduction. New York: Longman.

Cooney, T. J. 2002. et al. Open Ended Assessment in Math. Web. (Diakses 15 Februari 2018).

Dahar, R. W. 1996. Teori-teori Belajar. Erlangga. Jakarta.

Dian Kurniati, Romi Harimukti, dan Nur Asiyah Jamil, Desember 2016. Kemampuan berpikir

Tingkat tinggi siswa SMP di Kabupaten Jember dalam menyelesaikan soal berstandar pisa

Jurnal Penelitian dan Evaluasi Pendidikan. Volume 20, No 2, (Pg.142-155) Online:

Esa-Matti Järvinen dan J. Twyford (January 2000), Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 21–41 pada International

Journal of Technology and Design Education. Springer Netherlands Publisher.

Filsaime, Dennis.K. (2008). Menguak Rahasia Berpikir Kritis dan Kreatif. Jakarta : Prestasi Pustakaraya.

Freedman, R. L. H. (1994). Open-ended questioning. Menlo Park: Addison-Wesley Publishing.

Ghozali, I. (2006). Aplikasi analisis multivariate dengan program SPSS. Semarang:Badan Penerbit

Universitas Diponegoro.

Hake, Richard. (19 Januari 2019). Design-Based Research In Physics Education: A Review.

Jerry P. Becker, Shigeru Shimada. (1997). The Open-ended approach:a new proposal for teaching

mathematics: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Kadir (2006). Pembelajaran dengan Pendekatan Open-ended tentang soal-soal Terbuka (The Open-ended

Approads) IAIN Indonesia Sosial Equity Project (IISEP).

Katsuro, T. (2000). Open-ended Approach and Inprovement of Classroom Teaching Mathematics

Education In Japan. Japan Society of Mathematics Education (JSME).

King, F. D., Gordon, L. & Rohani, F. (1997). Assessment & evaluation higher order thinking skills.


Krathwohl, D. R. 2002. A Revision of Bloom Taxonomy: An Overview. Journal Theory Into Practice, Vol.


Mendikbud. (2013). Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan RI Nomor 65, Tahun 2013, tentang

Standar Proses.

Sapriya, dkk. 2007. Pengembangan IPS di SD. Bandung: UPI PRESS.

Sugiyono, 2009. Statistik Untuk penelitian. Bandung: Alfabeta.

Sukardjo. (2012). Buku pegangan kuliah evaluasi pembelajaran IPA. ProgramStudi Pendidikan Sains

ProgramPascasarjana UNY.

Sawada, Toshio, 1980. Arithmetic and Mathematics Instruction Based on Open-ended Problems- a

Proposal. Tokyo National Institute for Educational Research. Jurnal Centre for Science


Schnotz, W. & Kurschner, C. (2007). A reconsideration of cognitive load theory. Journal of Educational

Psychologist, 19, hlm. 469-508.

Shin Yen, T., & Halili, S, H. 2015. Effective Teaching Of Higher-Order Thinking (HOT) in Education.

The Online Journal of Distance Education and e-Learning. Vol. 3(2) : 41-47.

Zohar, A., Weiberger., dan Tamir, P (1994) The Effect of Biologi Critical Thingking Project on

Development of Critical Thungking. Dalam W.C Kyle (ed) Jurnal Of Ressearch on Science




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar Borneo

Creative Commons License
Jurnal Pendidikan Sekolah Dasar by Universitas Borneo Tarakan is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at

Contact Person:

A. Wilda Indra Nanna (Hp: 081253670923)

Ady Saputra (Hp: 082329693700)

Pendidikan Guru Sekolah Dasar

Jl. Amal Lama No.1

Tarakan, North Kalimantan (Kalimantan Utara)




View My Stats